Greek Medio-Passive Voice Explained: Lesson 9
We can actually use all of this to learn how to give commands (i.e. learn the imperative of the passive verbs). Here’s how it works:
To use the plural imperative (command for many people - you guys) of the passive tense, just use the future plural you guys form!
So, for example, I sleep is κοιμάμαι then the form for you (many) in the future is θα κοιμηθείτε and the command you guys sleep! (or you (formal) sleep!) is simply κοιμηθείτε!
Now that is pretty easy. Remember that I get dressed is ντύνομαι (uses the THick part in the past). How would you say:
That is also the plural command too. Now for the informal command, you do this:
Take the root and simply apply the command key.
What is the command key? Well, just like in the past, it is slightly different for both B and A. However, unlike in the past, it’s way more similar:
The command B key is ήσου!
The command A key is σου and because it is an A-key it has something in common with the thick stick and crushes the last letter!
For example, if you want to tell a child to sleep, you would go to κοιμάμαι for I sleep then you would get rid of the ending -άμαι (notice it’s the B2 ending so it goes B command-key) so you get κοιμ- and then you add the B command key so you get κοιμήσου.
Remember that I remember is θυμάμαι and work out how you would say::
For A verbs, you do the same except the ending is σου and since it’s A, you also crush the last letter (so A are actually two letters shorter: one because the last letter is crushed and one more because the A command key does not have ή before σου):
How would you say to a child (considering that present is ντύνομαι):
Good. That would be it... except, there is another small catch with A. You see...
For A category you also look at the active PAST and if you find PSI and X (from psi-factor and x-chromosome) you replace σ from key σου accordingly to either ψ from psi-factor or ξ from x-chromosome!
So it actually is a simplified test: in the normal one, you check the active past for these endings and if they are there, you replace part of the key with the other part of the word (psi-factor or x-chromosome) while in this case you do not bother about the other part of the word: you are only interested in finding psi or x and you just put them instead of σ in the key.
Did you get that? Let’s have an example. Let’s take the word for I think which is σκέφτομαι. Its root would be σκέφτ but it’s imaginary active in the past is έσκεψα (with PSI FACTOR PSI) so actually the key, instead of being σου becomes ψου. Now the last letter gets dropped (and two letters in this case (φτ) so it becomes σκέ + ψου or σκέψου for think!!
It is not so hard, is it. Just remember the command key (η)σου and you are good.
This is great. Let’s just have a summary of all we have learned in this last lesson:
To use the plural imperative (command) of the passive tense, just use the future plural form!
To use the singular imperative (command) of the passive tense, use the root of the word with the key ήσου for all B and σου for all A with no ending.
Just like in the past, in the A case, the last letter (or sometimes two consonants together if those occur) gets crushed and disappears and ALSO you do the psi-x test.
That’s what we learned in this last lesson. It was a bit much but hey, we’re done with the passive! Happy using it! For the last lesson, we will just review all the rules mentioned here in one place to make sure you can use them.Next lesson >