Vietnamese: Lesson 2

Vietnamese has two different O sounds: the o in the word saigon and the oh sound in Ho Chi Minh.

You already know the O in saigon, which is written with the normal letter o, and is pronounced like in top. It is used in the word to meaning big.

1 translation: big

But the O in Ho Chi Minh is written as an O with a hat, like this:

Ô ô Hô Chi Minh

Unfortunately, in Vietnamese, the ô in Hô Chi Minh is actually halfway between the sound in "oh no" and the sound "or". It is an orh nor sound. If you have trouble saying it halfway between "oh" and "or", just choose one and say it that way. It sounds more like an "or" at the end of a syllable, and more like an "oh" in the middle. But it never, ever sounds like the o in top.

If you are an American, you may have trouble distinguishing these two sounds, since America merged half a dozen of English’s different vowel sounds into a single vowel sound. Other English speaking countries don’t have that problem.

ÔôĐđ
aunt is (pronounced core, but a bit like the prefix co-)

2 translation: Aunt went to England.

Aunt is also used to mean "miss".

3 translation: Miss Smith is singing.

Aunt also means "you" when talking to a young or middle-aged woman.

4 translation: You (aunt) are watching a film.

grandfather is ông.

5 translation: Grandfather went out to the south.

Grandfather also means "Mr."

6 translation: Mr Smith is singing.

Grandfather also means "you" when talking to a man.

7 translation: You (grandfather) are watching a film.

Some Vietnamese words begin with kh. There are two ways you can choose to pronounce kh. You can either say it like a k sound followed by a h sound, or you can choose to say it like the german/arabic/scottish/dutch ch sound. Both ways are correct, so just choose whichever is easier for you.

8 translation: grandfather

no, not, don’t and didn’t are không

9 translation: Grandfather didn’t see the car.

10 translation: It is not far.

To make any sentence a question, you just put no on the end. To ask "Is it far?", you say "It is far, no?". To ask "Are you watching a film?" you say "you are watching a film, no?"

11 translation: Is it far?

12 translation: No, it’s not far.

13 translation: Do you (aunt) see the car.

14 translation: Are you (uncle) going out?

15 translation: Is it wrong?

The normal way to answer "yes", is to just say the adjective or the verb.

16 translation: Yes (it is wrong).

17 translation: Yes (it is far).

Do you remember the other kind of question?

18 translation: Who is going south?

Ai normally means who. But if you use it in a yes/no question, then it means "anybody".

19 translation: Is anybody going south?

20 translation: Did anyone see the film?

If you use who in a negative statement, it means nobody or not anybody.

21 translation: Nobody is singing.

22 translation: No, no-one saw the film.

23 translation: Did you (grandfather) see Mr. Smith?

If someone calls you grandfather, you can answer by calling yourself grandfather instead of "I".

24 translation: No, I (grandfather) didn’t see anyone.

25 translation: Did anyone see Mr. Smith?

26 translation: No, nobody saw anyone.

I estimate 95% of people in Vietnam go everywhere by motorbike.

Motorbike is shortened to mô tô in Vietnamese, but with the word for vehicle in front of it.

27 translation: vehicle

28 translation: motorbike

29 translation: Who saw the Motorbike?

People normally leave out the word "by" when they say "go by motorbike".

30 translation: Are you (aunt) going by motorbike?

31 translation: No, I (aunt) am not going by motorbike.

32 translation: The motorbike is not orange.

ôi sounds like ô followed by i. ô i, ôi.

Vietnamese does have one or two real pronouns.

I or me is tôi. Like "I am a toy". tôi

33 translation: I don't sing.

34 translation: I am going out.

35 translation: You (aunt) see me.

Tôi is a little bit formal. You can't use tôi with your boyfriend or girlfriend or family, or they will get angry. They will be insulted that you didn't call yourself "sister" or "brother" or "child".

If you are talking to your girlfriend, you are expected to call yourself "older brother". How would you say to your girlfriend "I am going out"?

36 translation: I am going out.

younger sibling is em. It's the word me backwards.

How would you say to your younger brother or sister, "I see you"?

37 translation: I see you.

How would you say to your older brother, "I see you"?

?Em xem anh.

When a woman talks to her boyfriend, she will call herself "em" and her boyfriend "anh", and vice-versa.

But if you were talking to a woman you don't know, what do you think you would say?

38 translation: I see you.

Be careful about calling women "em", even if they are younger. It sounds like you are hitting on them.

to go past is qua.

39 translation: I (formal) am going past.

How would you say to an older man "You went past me."?

40 translation: You went past me.

Yesterday is the day that past, hôm qua.

41 translation: Yesterday, I went past.

42 translation: Yesterday, Miss Smith went to see a film.

43 translation: Yesterday, did you (younger sister) go by motorbike?

44 translation: I (formal) am singing.

Tôi ca can mean "I sing", "I sang", "I am singing", or "I will sing". If you want to make it clear that you are right now in the process of singing, you need to add the Vietnamese word "doing".
doing is đang. Nearly the same as in English. doing, đang

So "I am singing" would be "I am doing singing."

45 translation: I am (doing) singing.

46 translation: I am (doing) going.

47 translation: I am (doing) seeing a movie.

48 translation: I am (doing) going past.

49 translation: I am not (doing) going out far.

50 translation: Are you (younger brother) (doing) going?

51 translation: No, I (younger brother) went yesterday.

Answers to Lesson 2

1 answer: to
2 answer: Cô đi Anh.
3 answer: Cô Smith ca.
4 answer: Cô xem phim.
5 answer: ông ra nam.
6 answer: ông Smith ca.
7 answer: ông xem phim.
8 answer: ông
9 answer: ông không xem xe.
10 answer: Không xa.
11 answer: Xa không?
12 answer: Không, không xa.
13 answer: Cô xem xe không?
14 answer: ông ra không?
15 answer: Sai không?
16 answer: Sai.
17 answer: Xa.
18 answer: Ai đi nam?
19 answer: Ai đi nam không?
20 answer: Ai xem phim không?
21 answer: Ai không ca.
22 answer: Không, ai không xem phim.
23 answer: ông xem ông Smith không?
24 answer: Không, ông không xem ai.
25 answer: Ai xem ông Smith không?
26 answer: Không, ai không xem ai.
27 answer: xe
28 answer: xe mô tô
29 answer: Ai xem xe mô tô?
30 answer: Cô đi xe mô tô không?
31 answer: Không, cô không đi xe mô tô.
32 answer: Xe mô tô không cam.
33 answer: Tôi không ca.
34 answer: Tôi ra.
35 answer: Cô xem tôi.
36 answer: Anh ra.
37 answer: Anh xem em.
38 answer: Tôi xem cô.
39 answer: Tôi qua.
40 answer: ông qua tôi.
41 answer: Hôm qua, tôi qua.
42 answer: Hôm qua, cô Smith đi xem phim.
43 answer: Hôm qua, em đi xe mô tô không?
44 answer: Tôi ca.
45 answer: Tôi đang ca.
46 answer: Tôi đang đi.
47 answer: Tôi đang xem phim.
48 answer: Tôi đang qua.
49 answer: Tôi không đang ra xa.
50 answer: Em đang đi không?
51 answer: Không, tôi đi hôm qua.