Introduction to Turkish: Lesson 4

Plurals

In Turkish, most plurals are regular.

-lar = if the word's last vowel is a, ı, o or u
-ler = if the word's last vowel is e, i, ö or ü
Some words of Arabic origin end in -at and you need to add the suffix -ler.
The word for clock is saat.
The word for mountain is dağ.
The word for reality is hakikat.

Let's pluralise the words.

1 translation: dağ

2 translation: adam

3 translation: kadın

4 translation: masa

5 translation: sandalye

6 translation: saat

7 translation: hakikat

Pronouns
The word for I is ben.
The word for familiar you is sen.
The word for he, she and it is o.
The word for we is biz.
The word for polite or plural you is siz.
The word for they is onlar.
Verbs

In Turkish, almost all verbs are regular. You will learn how to form infinitives and the present continuous tense.

Infinitives -mak = if the word's last vowel is a, ı, o or u -mek = if the word's last vowel is e, i, ö or ü
The word for tell is söyle-
The word for drink is iç-
The word for eat is ye-
The word for do is yap-
The word for come is gel-

Let's try.

8 translation: to tell

9 translation: to drink

10 translation: to eat

11 translation: to do

12 translation: to come

If you remove the infinitive suffix, you'll find the stem.

Present Continuous Tense -ıyor = if the stem's first vowel is a or ı and last letter or vowel is a or ı -iyor = if the stem's first vowel is e or i and last letter or vowel is e or i -uyor = if the stem's first vowel is o or u and last letter or vowel is a or ı -üyor = if the stem's first vowel is ö or ü and last letter or vowel is e or i

You need to change a into ı or u, and e into i or ü when forming the present continuous tense (This rule applies if a or e is the last letter of the verb stem). If the stem ends in a consonant, you don't need to change any letter, you simply add the suffix.

The suffix for ben is -um
The suffix for sen is -sun
There is no suffix for o
The suffix for biz is -uz
The suffix for siz is -sunuz
The suffix for onlar is -lar if they are people, and no suffix if they are animals, plants or inanimate. But the suffix can be left out even talking about people.

Let's conjugate the verb söylemek (using the pronoun).

13 translation: I tell

14 translation: you (singular) tell

15 translation: he/she/it tells

16 translation: we tell

17 translation: you (polite/plural) tell

18 translation: they (people) tell

19 translation: they (non-people) tell

And now, let's conjugate gelmek.

20 translation: I come

21 translation: you (singular) come

22 translation: he/she/it comes

23 translation: we come

24 translation: you (polite/plural) come

25 translation: they (people) come

26 translation: they (non-people) come

Answers to Lesson 4

1 answer: dağlar
2 answer: adamlar
3 answer: kadınlar
4 answer: masalar
5 answer: sandalyeler
6 answer: saatler
7 answer: hakikatler
8 answer: söylemek
9 answer: içmek
10 answer: yemek
11 answer: yapmak
12 answer: gelmek
13 answer: ben söylüyorum
14 answer: sen söylüyorsun
15 answer: o söylüyor
16 answer: biz söylüyoruz
17 answer: siz söylüyorsunuz
18 answer: onlar söylüyorlar
19 answer: onlar söylüyor
20 answer: ben geliyorum
21 answer: sen geliyorsun
22 answer: o geliyor
23 answer: biz geliyoruz
24 answer: siz geliyorsunuz
25 answer: onlar geliyorlar
26 answer: onlar geliyor