In this fifth lesson, you’ll learn how to say that you need things and that you have things. We’ll finish up with the promised dialogs about securing a hotel room.
Let’s start by reviewing how to ask for something:
Give me tea = Me-to tea give = Menga choy bering
Give me that book = Me-to that book-ni give = Menga u kitobni bering
Now, you also know how to say something is good:
This book is good = Bu kitob yaxshi
The word kerak means need. So:
I need a book = Me-to book need = Menga kitob kerak
I need this book = Me-to this book need = Menga bu kitob kerak
Note that it is bu kitob, not bu kitobni. That’s because you’re saying that the book is a need, or is needed - it’s an X=Y sentence. (If this point confuses you, ignore it for now.)
Now, let’s say you’re in a hotel and you need a room:
1 translation: I need a room. (Me-to room need.)
Maybe, I need a coffee:
2 translation: I need a coffee.
To ask if someone else needs a tea, you might say:
You-to tea need-? = Sizga choy kerakmi?
Now you try:
3 translation: Do you need a room?
To say you have something, you also use a postposition, in this case -da. Specifically, you say that something exists (bor) at you.
I have a book = Menda kitob bor
In a hotel, you ask for a room like so:
Do you have a room? = Sizda xona bormi?
Say it yourself:
4 translation: Do you have a room?
There is one other way to indicate true ownership, as opposed to momentary possession: I own a book = Book-my exists = Kitobim bor
You use the same structure with yo’q instead of bor to say that something doesn’t exist or is lacking for you:
I don’t have the book = Menda bu kitob yo’q (Me-at this book lacks)
I don’t own/have any book = Kitobim yo’q (Book-my lacks)
Let’s try it:
5 translation: I don’t have a room (Me-at room lacks)
6 translation: I don’t own a hotel (Hotel-my lacks)
Incidentally, you can use bor and yo’q without the menda and sizda to say that something does/does not exist in a place:
There is a hotel here (Hotel here exists)=Mehmonxona buyerda bor
There is no hotel here (Hotel here lacks)=Mehmonxona buyerda yo’q
Using what you’ve learned and some hints, you’re now going to finish this fifth lesson and this Introduction to Uzbek structures with the promised dialogs:
You’re starting out on a street, and you want to know if there’s a hotel there:
7 translation: Is there a hotel here? (Hotel here exists-?)
The answer you get: There’s no hotel here.
8 translation: There is no hotel here. (Hotel here lacks)
You ask where there is a hotel:
9 translation: Where is there a hotel?
The man says there’s a hotel over there, and points:
10 translation: A hotel is there. (Hotel there)
You thank him, saying Rahmat, and go to the hotel.
Inside, you ask the manager if he has a free/empty (bosh) room:
11 translation: Do you have a free room? (You-at free room exists-?)
He says yes, and asks if you need a room.
12 translation: Yes. Do you need a room? (Yes. You-to room need-?)
You answer yes, and he leads you to a room. You look in, but it is dirty. You say:
13 translation: This room is not good.
He makes an apologetic gesture and leads you to another. It is satisfactory. You say:
14 translation: This room is good. Thank you.
He bids you goodbye (xayr) and is on his way.
What you’ve encountered in this little course is very elementary. I have often simplified. Yet you’ve seen a lot of structures to express things that aren’t said the same way as in English. The first time you do the course, you’ll likely not remember everything. However, if you go through it a second time, from the beginning, you’ll find yourself filling in the blanks more easily so that when you learn new words you can use them with the structures illustrated here.