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Introduction to Esperanto: 19

Do you remember the words for good (bona) and easy (facila)?

These two words end in an a because they describe things (they are called adjectives). All adjectives in Esperanto end in an a (just like all nouns end in an o, as we previously saw).

But let's consider these words that end in an a. Another way to put it is: you could think that a means related to or pertaining to. Thus bona means relating to goodness, pertaining to a group of good things, or simply put, good. And facila means relating to facility, pertaining to the group of easy things, or simply put - easy. Thus our a seems to indicate possession or pertinence.

Now, you have these words for vi (you), mi (I) etc. What would happen if you added an a to them?

For example, you take vi (which means you) and you add a and you get via which would mean related to you, pertaining to you or simply: your!

If you want to make words like mi, vi, ĝi, etc. possessive, you add a to them, to make them into mia, via, ĝia.

Guess how you would say:

  1. Remember that the word for work was related to "labour".
  2. Use "Usono" as your country name.
  3. You can use whatever word order you like.
  4. You will be saying "from where you are?", and your word for "from" is "de".
  5. Remember that France was "Francujo".
  6. Take off the "o" and add an "i".
  7. Take off the "as" and add an "i".
  8. To get the word "to be", take "estas" (which means "is"), take off the present tense ending "as" and add an "i".
  9. Do a reverse thing: toke off the infinitive ending "i" and add a present tense ending "as".
  10. Remember there is no word for "do" in questions, so you will be asking "where you learn?"
  11. This is an adjective, not an adverb, so the ending of this one is "a".
  12. The verb endings on "lerni" and "labori" will be "as".
  13. Remember that "fartas" means "to be doing" already, thus you will not need the word for "to be" in that sentence.
  14. Do you still remember that "I" is "mi"? Also be careful not to miss the word "very".
  15. Apply the present tense "as" ending to the word "havi", and also mark objectivity on the word "ĝi" by adding an "n". 
  16. Remember to mark objectivity on the word "tio". Also use the appropriate present "as" and "i" endings.
  17. Did you remember to mark objectivity on the word "kio"?
  18. Yes, add an "n" to "Esperanto" to mark objectivity.
  19. Use the present tense "as" form of the word "lerni" ("to learn").
  20. Use the present tense "as" form of the word "studi" and also mark objectivity where appropriate.
  21. Do NOT mark objectivity on this one. See the next lesson for why.
  22. Use a form of the word "ĝi".
  23. Remember the word for "labour".
  24. Don't forget to mark objectivity on the word "saluto"!
  25. We are using it not as a greeting but just describing a day, thus do not mark objectivity on this on. Also, remember that "good" is "bona".
  26. Remember that the word for "to say" is "diri" and use it in the right form. Also don't forget to add the objectivity marker on BOTH the adjective and the noun.
  27. Now do mark objectivity on this one. Remember that you need to mark it on both words.
  28. No need for quotation marks or anything. Also remember to mark objectivity.
  29. This will be just one word, objectivity marked.
  30. Remember that it's similar to the word "salute".
  31. Literally "how you are-doing?"
  32. Use the word "kaj" for "and". Rememeber that "well" is an adverb and will therefore need the "e" ending.
  33. Remember that "badly" is the opposite of "well", so you will be needing to add "mal" somewhere.
  34. Mark objectivity on the word "kio".
  35. "History" is "historio". Mark objectivity on it too.
  36. Literally "where from you are?"
  37. "France" was "Francujo".
  38. Remember the "an" suffix for group members, and also mark objectivity in the second sentence.
  39. Use "kio" as your k-uestion word, and "via" as the word for "your".
  40. Use a form of "study", and also mark objectivity in the second sentence.
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