Basic Introduction to Participles in Lithuanian: Lesson 8
We have learned how to form the half-participle and by-participle in all of their forms, and the participles in most forms. In this lesson, we will learn or at least talk about the rest.
There are some participles that are formed with the infinitive rather than the past, present, or future forms (well, actually, the future forms in Lithuanian ARE formed from the infinitive, so technically all the future participles are derived from it too, and that is also why būsiant has that ū even though the future form bus does not - but in most cases it’s just simpler to form the by-participle and the participles from the future form). Anyhow.
What is the infinitive of:
Alright then. Here’s the first one:
To get the past passive participle, remove the i from the infinitive and add as for masculine and a for feminine.
It’s that simple! Just a t and then the ending.
So, for example, if sakyti is "to say", "one which was said" would be sakytas or sakyta.
Remembering that an apple is obuolys, how would you say (just two words, the first of which is the past participle and then the apple):
If to read was skaityti, and knyga (feminine) is book, how would you say a book which was read:
Having in mind that to see is matyti and somewhere is kažkur, how would you say I have seen her somewhere (which would literally be: she for-me somewhere was-seen. We could use yra in this sentence too but let’s skip it this time)
Excellent. So you have the passive past participle too.
There is another one (the last one):
If you add in right after the last t in the passive past participle, you get a necessity participle (reikiamybės dalyvis), which turns the word from one who is done into one who is to be done or sometimes one which is worthy of doing.
For example, to do is padaryti.
How would you say (masculine, one word):
And then if we added an in we would get padarytinas which is one which is to be done.
How would you say (remember, you will be using the feminine, and this is just two words):
If a dish is patiekalas, how would you say:
This does it! I hope this course clarifies at least a bit the usage of all of these by-participles, participles and half-participles.
I can now tell you that the grammatical term for a by-participle is a Gerund (but it does translate as by-participle from Lithuanian: padalyvis), dalyvis is participle and pusdalyvis is an adverbial participle (but, once again, the literal translation is a half-participle).
There are still things left to learn about.
One thing you should look into is learning how to make all these participles reflexive (hint: you usually just add is to the end of the word and you’re set, it’s reflexive).
There is also the frequentative form of the active participle (ateidavęs - one who used to come by), but it is formed just like any other past participle from the past form of the frequentative verb (if you don’t understand this paragraph, just ignore it.)
Another thing worthy of attention is the fact that the participle for būti (to be) is formed from the form esa for is rather than yra, hence you get esant - "while being". Likewise, you get esantis (active participle, one who is in a particular place) or esamas (the passive participle means one who is present/current, but not in a place but rather in a more abstract sense, like mano esamas darbas would be my present job).
There are certain aspects of these forms that you should still learn about, however, the foundations you gained in this course should hopefully help you along the way.
Good luck or sėkmės!
NOTE: You have finished this course. Well done! You can now check out some of the other courses we have:
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|Introduction to Basque||a course of Basque with 5 lessons produced by Linas|
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