Lithuanian Basics: Lesson 14
Say it formally:
?You speak.|Jūs kalbate.
Now, let’s think about some other countries in the world. Take Russia for example:
Lithuanian word for Russia is Rusija.
?It is Russia.|Tai yra Rusija.
Now, remember the ij and the išk rules and make it into Russianly (that is: in Russian):
?I speak English but I do not speak Russian.|Aš kalbu angliškai, bet aš nekalbu rusiškai.
That is cool. Say that about you (formally):
?You speak Russian.|Jūs kalbate rusiškai.
What about the informal you:
?You (informal) speak Russian.|Tu kalbi rusiškai.
Okay. What if you want to ask questions? Well, one way is just to raise your intonation and put a question mark at the end. Try (formally):
?You speak English?|Kalbate angliškai?
In English it might not seem grammatically correct but it is a perfectly legitimate question in Lithuanian. You can ask the tu form of the same question:
?You (informal) speak Lithuanian?|Tu kalbi lietuviškai?
When asking both these questions, especially the informal one, you are very likely to drop the jūs or tu part and just say kalbi lietuviškai? - makes things shorter and easier.
Okay, that is the first way to ask questions. What if you want to ask questions with do? No problem.
The Lithuanian word that does the same function as do does in English is ar.
You just put ar in the beginning of the sentence where you would put do. It’s so easy you don’t even need an example. Try it (formally):
?Do you speak English?|Ar jūs kalbate angliškai?
?I speak English but I do not speak Lithuanian.|Aš kalbu angliškai, bet aš nekalbu lietuviškai.
Okay, do you remember the word for he understands?
?He understands.|Jis supranta.
So, let’s say this formally:
?Do you understand Lithuanian?|Ar jūs suprantate lietuviškai?
?I do not understand Lithuanian but I speak and understand English.|Aš nesuprantu lietuviškai, bet aš kalbu ir suprantu angliškai.
This was a long sentence, wasn’t it.
Now, do not feel obliged in any way to remember those if you don’t want to. I’ll just introduce a couple of countries so that you could convert the name of the country to the name of the language using the ij and išk rules. Also it’s an interesting experiment.
Lithuanian for Portugal is Portugalija. Try:
?Do you (informal) speak Portuguese?|Ar tu kalbi portugališkai?
Lithuanians call France - Prancūzija.
?I understand French.|Aš suprantu prancūziškai.
Notice how in English there is a change France-French but in Lithuanian there is none. You are simply saying Frenchly and it means in French or simply French.
Try one more:
Lithuanian for Japan is Japonija.
Lithuanian for he reads is jis skaito.
Notice how skaito ends in o. Remember how to say:
?I read.|Aš skaitau.
And also remember:
?You (informally) read.|Tu skaitai.
Okay, now, do this formally:
?Do you read Japanese?|Ar jūs skaitote japoniškai?
This requires you to remember some more but you are capable of that:
?I can read Japanese.|Aš galiu skaityti japoniškai.
If you want to ask that, you simply say you can read Japanese? in a raising intonation:
?You can read Japanese?|Jūs galite skaityti japoniškai?
Or, if you want to ask with ar, you just put it in front of the last sentence (literally the sentence would be do you can read in Japanese). Make the sentence:
?Can you read Japanese?|Ar jūs galite skaityti japoniškai?
Now just play with some languages:
?I speak English, French, Russian, Japanese and Lithuanian.|Aš kalbu angliškai, prancūziškai, rusiškai, japoniškai ir lietuviškai.
So, finally, simply compose a sentence which you might find useful in Lithuania:
?I do not understand very well Lithuanian but I speak English and I can read Lithuanian.|Aš nesuprantu labai gerai lietuviškai, bet aš kalbu angliškai, ir aš galiu skaityti lietuviškai.
We are done. Next time we take a shift from these language things and learn more useful Lithuanian words to name things.Next lesson >