Lithuanian Basics: Lesson 9

Let’s first learn one more little thing related with yra. First of all, how do you say:

1 translation: He is here.

Now, how do you imagine one would say "He is not alive?" You would think it is jis neyra gyvas.

In fact, it should have been neyra and it probably was. But try to say that a lot of times: neyra, neyra, neyra... When you repeat that, it just blends together, and if you take into account that this is one of the most important words, you understand why it becomes...

nėra

So, again, how would you say:

2 translation: He is not alive.

If you want to say "they are not him", you simply say "they are not he". How would you say that:

3 translation: They are not him.

Same for "he is not you". How would you say that.

4 translation: He is not you (informal).

Then, let’s talk about something else.

The “to” forms of words are called “the infinitives”. Let’s talk about the “to” forms (or the infinitives) of Lithuanian “a” words now.

First, do you remember how to make the infinitives of “o” words? Try doing it.

5 translation: He does it.

Now, make the infinitive.

6 translation: He wants to do it.

So “o” verbs change “o” to “yti”. That’s simple. What about “i” verbs?

7 translation: He wants it.

8 translation: He wants to have it.

I changes to ėti. That’s also simple.

Well, I hate to break the news for you but with “a” verbs it’s not so simple. There is more than one rule. There are a couple of patterns. We’ll be learning some of the patterns as we go along in this course.

There is good news too. I’m going to teach you a general pattern for “a” verbs. We’ll call it General A. General A is right a lot of times, and even if there is a slight variation, almost always you will be understood. When you’ll be understood, even if you miss the exact form, you’re likely to be corrected and learn the sub-pattern that does not comply with General A.

The General A is really simple:
To use the General A, you replace a with ti.

Let’s practice General A.

For example, Lithuanian for he takes is jis ima. Try:

9 translation: I take it.

10 translation: They do not take it.

And now, apply General A to ima:

11 translation: I can take it.

Let’s keep it simple there and stop. We will be learning some more about words that form these “to” forms (i.e. the infinitives) different later. Just remember:

When in doubt, use the General A and you will be very likely to be understood.

Answers to Lesson 9

1 answer: Jis čia yra.
2 answer: Jis nėra gyvas.
3 answer: Jie nėra jis.
4 answer: Jis nėra tu.
5 answer: Jis tai daro.
6 answer: Jis nori tai daryti.
7 answer: Jis to nori.
8 answer: Jis nori tai turėti.
9 answer: Aš tai imu.
10 answer: Jie to neima.
11 answer: Aš galiu tai imti.