We have been learning Lithuanian. But where is it spoken? In Lithuania, of course.
The Lithuanian word for Lithuania is Lietuva.Lietuva ends in a (like most other countries) so it is, of course, a feminine word. It’s how Lithuanians call their country.
Now, how do we say Lithuanian (i.e. something Lithuanian)? For example, a Lithuanian bus.
First, do you remember how to say:
1 translation: A good bus
Just like geras (good), Lithuanian needs to end in as. Moreover, there is one rule in Lithuanian:
When changing forms when dealing with a country name you add išk before the ending.
So, having this in mind, it goes like this: we have Lietuva, we make it into masculine (which ends in as) instead of feminine (which ends in a) so we have Lietuvas. But, of course, you use the išk rule and add išk before the masculine ending (as) and you get lietuviškas.
So, now you can say:
2 translation: A Lithuanian bus.
3 translation: A Lithuanian bus is good.
What about Lithuanian days? Remember, that hot is karštas or karšta, and say:
4 translation: A Lithuanian day is hot.
Okay, now, as we have Lithuania, let’s learn another country. It’s gonna be England:
The Lithuanian word for England is Anglija.
Now, the word Anglija has ij. Most country names in Lithuania have ij. There is one last thing you need to remember:
Then making over forms, ij disappears from country names.
So, how do you make England into English? Please take your time.
5 translation: English
Let’s get back to the bus. Nobody likes English busses. Say it explicitly:
6 translation: An English bus is bad.
Okay, with these rules, you can master the countries. But I want you to master the languages as well. If bad is blogas and badly is blogai, then take lietuviškas as Lithuanian and make it into Lithuanianly. By the way, of course, Lithuanianly means in Lithuanian. So, make it.
7 translation: In Lithuanian
We have it. Now, we can say in Lithuanian. Do you remember how to say: I speak?
8 translation: I speak
Then, you are free to finally say:
9 translation: I speak in Lithuanian.
Now, see how Lietuva became lietuviškai. The same process happens with Anglija (except, ij gets dropped – this happens all the time without exceptions).
10 translation: I speak in English.
Those two phrases mean the same as I speak Lithuanian or I speak English. In is redundant.
Okay, now say:
11 translation: I speak Lithuanian but I do not speak English.
That’s what a Lithuanian would say. Some of them.
For this lesson, just remember:
If you are making other forms dealing with country names, you a) if there is one, remove ij b) add išk.
That’s all you need to know. You can now brag about your Lithuanian language skills. We had to take this shift in our studying so that you could say that. Next time we learn more about languages and we learn how to ask questions (which is probably the easiest thing ever). That’s before we get back and build on the stuff we were previously learning.