Introduction to Esperanto: 10

You can add things to words in Esperanto to have them have different meanings in a similar fashion in which you can make act into actor, teach into teacher or lingua into linguist. But, unlike in English, where you have or, er, ist and others suffixes, in Esperanto you always use ist as your suffix for professions or hobbies.

The Esperanto suffix which shows a profession or a hobby is ist. You add that ist right before the ending of the word.

But wait a minute - what is the ending of the word? Well, it's simply the last one or two letters of the word which indicate to which class the word belongs. The ending for nouns, for example, is o, and all nouns in Esperanto end in o (even the word Esperanto itself ends in an o). This makes it really easy, but don't worry if you don't fully get it yet - we will learn more about this later.

Let's try to apply the ist rule. For example, if the Esperanto word for piano is piano, and we want to make it into a pianist, we add ist right before the ending o and we get pianisto.

So, if a language was lingvo, and its ending is o, how do you think you would say a linguist ?

  1. Add "ist" right before "o" in the word "lingvo".
  2. It's the same word as in English, except you have no article, and also the noun ending "o" at the end.
  3. You simply remove the "int" from that word to get to "teeth". 
  4. Don't forget that you need the noun ending "o" after the "ist".
  5. Add the "ist" before the "o".
  6. Don't forget that the suffix "an" goes before the ending "o".
  7. Just put "de" (as a separate word) in front of the country name.
  8. Remember that "human" was "homo".
  9. Remember that "good" was "bona".
  10. Remember that the word for work was related to "labour".
  11. Use "Usono" as your country name.
  12. You can use whatever word order you like.
  13. You will be saying "from where you are?", and your word for "from" is "de".
  14. Remember that France was "Francujo".
  15. Take off the "o" and add an "i".
  16. Take off the "as" and add an "i".
  17. To get the word "to be", take "estas" (which means "is"), take off the present tense ending "as" and add an "i".
  18. Do a reverse thing: toke off the infinitive ending "i" and add a present tense ending "as".
  19. Remember there is no word for "do" in questions, so you will be asking "where you learn?"
  20. This is an adjective, not an adverb, so the ending of this one is "a".
  21. The verb endings on "lerni" and "labori" will be "as".
  22. Remember that "fartas" means "to be doing" already, thus you will not need the word for "to be" in that sentence.
  23. Do you still remember that "I" is "mi"? Also be careful not to miss the word "very".
  24. Apply the present tense "as" ending to the word "havi", and also mark objectivity on the word "ĝi" by adding an "n". 
  25. Remember to mark objectivity on the word "tio". Also use the appropriate present "as" and "i" endings.
  26. Did you remember to mark objectivity on the word "kio"?
  27. Yes, add an "n" to "Esperanto" to mark objectivity.
  28. Use the present tense "as" form of the word "lerni" ("to learn").
  29. Use the present tense "as" form of the word "studi" and also mark objectivity where appropriate.
  30. Do NOT mark objectivity on this one. See the next lesson for why.
  31. Use a form of the word "ĝi".
  32. Remember the word for "labour".
  33. Don't forget to mark objectivity on the word "saluto"!
  34. We are using it not as a greeting but just describing a day, thus do not mark objectivity on this on. Also, remember that "good" is "bona".
  35. Remember that the word for "to say" is "diri" and use it in the right form. Also don't forget to add the objectivity marker on BOTH the adjective and the noun.
  36. Now do mark objectivity on this one. Remember that you need to mark it on both words.
  37. No need for quotation marks or anything. Also remember to mark objectivity.
  38. This will be just one word, objectivity marked.
  39. Remember that it's similar to the word "salute".
  40. Literally "how you are-doing?"
  41. Use the word "kaj" for "and". Rememeber that "well" is an adverb and will therefore need the "e" ending.
  42. Remember that "badly" is the opposite of "well", so you will be needing to add "mal" somewhere.
  43. Mark objectivity on the word "kio".
  44. "History" is "historio". Mark objectivity on it too.
  45. Literally "where from you are?"
  46. "France" was "Francujo".
  47. Remember the "an" suffix for group members, and also mark objectivity in the second sentence.
  48. Use "kio" as your k-uestion word, and "via" as the word for "your".
  49. Use a form of "study", and also mark objectivity in the second sentence.
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